This series of lessons follows from the ‘Fake News’ series. It considers the nature of propaganda/active measures/psychological operations undertaken by Russia, China and the United States, with reference to current and past examples. Since this is a very large topic students are referred to other materials including books and youtube lectures. The written material on this site provides a framework for understanding. You are encouraged to use this framework to help you do your own research. These lessons will be updated from time to time. Fact based feedback is welcome.